Quran sciences

Exploring the Rich Tapestry of Quran sciences

Quran sciences, referred to as “علوم القرآن” (ʿUlum al-Quran) in Arabic, form a comprehensive field of study within Islamic scholarship. This intricate discipline explores the profound intricacies of the Quran, encompassing a diverse array of disciplines. The Quran holds paramount significance in the lives of Muslims, transcending beyond mere words to become a life curriculum. It provides instructions on how to live and the purpose for which we exist. While, Quran sciences occupy a uniquely esteemed position in the lives of Muslims, serving as a guide for both living and understanding the purpose of life and death.

In this article, we endeavor to uncover the multifaceted dimensions of Quran sciences, providing insight into the various fields that collectively contribute to a thorough comprehension of the sacred Quran.

Quran sciences’ establishment and development

The quran sciences  encompass various disciplines dealing with different aspects of the Quran, such as exegesis, recitations, and more. Due to their significance, many academic institutions offer quran science online courses, recognizing the importance of studying and understanding the Quran.

The quran sciences underwent development over distinct periods of time, each marked by significant milestones:

1. Early Period (Prophet Muhammad’s Time):

Originated during the time of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).

Not initially documented in writing.

Explanations and clarifications by the Prophet were orally transmitted.

2. Post-Prophetic Period:

Urgent need arose among Muslims to document Quranic Sciences after the Prophet’s passing.

Essential for preserving the knowledge conveyed through revelation.

3.Caliphal Period and Quran Compilation:

Formalization gained momentum with Uthman ibn Affan’s compilation of the Quran.

Growing emphasis on the necessity of a distinct science dedicated to the Quran during the era of the rightly guided caliphs.

Protection of the Quran from assimilation into the languages of new converts.

4. Umayyad Caliphate and Emergence of Quranic Sciences:

Linked to the Umayyad Caliphate and the establishment of the science of documentation.

Tafsir (exegesis) emerged as the primary Quranic science during this period.

Numerous books were written to explain the meanings of the Quranic verses.

5. Evolution and Diversification:

Quranic Sciences continued to evolve, branching into various disciplines.

New subdivisions and specializations emerged over time.

Ongoing development and expansion of knowledge in the field.

The reasons of quranic sciences establishment

It occurred based on several fundamental points:

1-Significance of the Quran: 

The Quran,  the Book of Allah and the primary source of guidance in Islam,  serves as the constitution for a Muslim’s life, there was a necessity to develop specific sciences to deeply understand its teachings.

2-Need for Interpretation: 

Some verses of the Quran have complex nature, leading to the necessity for accurate interpretation to ensure a proper understanding of meanings and instructions.

3-Preservation of the Text:

 Quran sciences emerged to ensure the preservation of the Quranic text and maintain its unique linguistic style.

4-Guidance for Life:

 The Quran provides comprehensive guidance on how to live and behave. To ensure a correct understanding, there was a need for sciences that highlight these instructions.

5-Educational Methodology

Providing a systematic educational framework that contributes to people learning to understand and apply the teachings of the Quran in their daily lives.

the quran and quranic sciences

Now we will mention some important quranic sciences

Quranic interpretation

It’s  known as “Tafsir” in Arabic, is a quran science that involves the explanation and elucidation of the meanings of the Quranic verses. While Tafsir aims to provide insights into the linguistic, historical, cultural, and legal aspects of the Quran to enhance understanding for readers and followers of Islam. Here are key aspects of Quranic interpretation:

1-Linguistic Analysis: 

Tafsir involves a deep linguistic analysis of the Arabic language used in the Quran. Scholars explore the nuances of vocabulary, grammar, and syntax to uncover the precise meanings of the verses.

2-Historical Context: 

Understanding the historical context in which certain verses were revealed is crucial for accurate interpretation. Tafsir delves into the circumstances of revelation (Asbab al-Nuzul) to provide context and relevance to the verses.

3-Legal and Jurisprudential Insights:

 Tafsir is closely tied to Islamic jurisprudence (Fiqh), offering legal and ethical insights derived from Quranic verses. It helps in deriving principles and guidelines for various aspects of personal and communal life.

4-Spiritual and Moral Guidance: 

Beyond linguistic and legal aspects, Tafsir provides spiritual and moral guidance. Scholars often elaborate on the ethical teachings of the Quran, emphasizing virtues, compassion, and principles of justice.

5-Types of Tafsir:

 Tafsir can be categorized into different types, including linguistic (Lughawi), legal (Fiqhi), and spiritual (Tazkiyah-oriented). Each type serves a specific purpose, catering to different needs and interests of readers.

6-sources of tafseer

Quranic interpretation, or Tafsir, draws from various sources to provide a comprehensive understanding of the Quranic verses. These sources include:

  • Quran itself (Tafsir al-Quran bi’l-Quran)

  • Hadith (Tafsir al-Quran bi’l-Hadith)

  • Companions’ Understanding (Tafsir al-Quran bi’l-Sahaba)

  • Scholarly Consensus (Tafsir al-Quran bi’l-Ijma)

  • Analogical Reasoning (Tafsir al-Quran bi’l-Qiyas)


Taseer scholars and books

1-Ibn katheer book(Al Quran Al azeem)

Ibn Kathir (Ismail ibn Umar ibn Kathir), A medieval Islamic scholar, who was an encyclopedic scholar specialized in  the quran and quranic sciences.

 His Tafsir Ibn Kathir is widely respected for its clarity and conciseness. He provides historical context and linguistic analysis, making it one of the most widely read commentaries.

He depends, in his book,  on Al Tafsir Bil ma’thur.

2- “Al-Jami’ li-Ahkam al-Qur’an” 

Al-Qurtubi (Al-Murtada al-Zabidi) wrote a comprehensive Tafsir that incorporates linguistic analysis, legal rulings, and historical context.

3-Jami’ al-Bayan fi Ta’wil al-Qur’an (Tafsir al-Tabari)

Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, was a prominent Islamic scholar who lived in the 9th and 10th centuries, he was called Sheikh Al mofaseeren.

Al-Tabari’s Quranic exegesis is one of the earliest and most comprehensive commentaries on the Quran. It includes linguistic analysis, historical context, jurisprudential discussions, and reports from the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and his companions. While extensive, it may contain various opinions and narrations, and scholars often study it critically.

Science of Qiraat “Quran sciences”

The science of Qira’at, known as “علم القراءات” (ʿIlm al-Qira’at) in Arabic, is a branch of quran sciences  that deals with the various authentic ways of reciting the Quran. It involves the study and understanding of the different modes of recitation and pronunciation of the Quranic text. 

Taybat al nashe fi al qiraat al ashr

Ibn al-Jazari’s notable work related to the science of Qira’at is titled “Taybat al nashe fi al qiraat al ashr.

” This book is a comprehensive treatise on the ten canonical Qira’at, which are the widely recognized and transmitted modes of Quranic recitation.

The Ten recitations(Al qiraat Al Ashr)

The ten Qira’at refer to the ten canonical modes of recitation of the Quran. While These modes have been transmitted with an unbroken chain of narration (Isnad) back to Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) through various well-known and reputable reciters. The ten Qira’at are recognized and accepted within Islamic scholarship, and each mode has its unique features, pronunciation, and style. Here is a list of the ten Qira’at along with the names of their respective transmitters:

1-Naafi’ (نافع) – Madinah: Narrated by Warsh and Qalun.

2-Ibn Kathir (ابن كثير) – Makkah: Narrated by Al-Bazzy, and Qunbul.

3-Abu ‘Amr (أبو عمرو) – Al basri: Narrated by Al-Durri, and Al susi.

4-Ibn ‘Amir (ابن عامر) – Damascus: Narrated by his ham, and bin zakwan.

5-Hamzah (حمزة) – Kufa: Narrated by Khalaf, and khalad.

6-Asim, kufah: Narrated by sho’bah and hafs

7-Al-Kisai (الكسائي) – Kufa: Narrated by AlLayth, and Al Durri

8-Khalaf (خلف) – Makkah: Narrated by Ishaq, and Idris.

9-Abu Ja’far (أبو جعفر) – Madinah: Narrated by Ibn wardan, and ibn jumaz.

10-Ya’qub (يعقوب) – Makkah: Narrated by Roways, and Rawh.


Quran sciences hold a central and profound significance within the Islamic tradition, a multifaceted field of study, While encompassing various disciplines aimed at understanding the depth and nuances of the Quranic text.

The Quranic Sciences include Quranic exegesis (Tafsir), the study of Quranic recitations (Qira’at), and other disciplines that contribute to a holistic understanding of the Quran. Scholars within this field delve into linguistic analysis, historical context, and legal implications, ensuring a comprehensive exploration of the divine message.


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